Parameterized Verification with Automatically Computed Inductive Assertions

T. Arons, A. Pnueli, S. Ruah, J. Xu, and L. Zuck

To appear at 13th Conference on Computer-Aided Verification (CAV01), Paris, France, 18-22 July 2001


The paper presents a method, called the method of VERIFICATION BY INVISIBLE INVARIANTS for the automatic verification of a large classes of parameterized systems. The method is based on the automatic calculation of candidate inductive assertions and checking for their inductiveness, using symbolic model-checking techniques for both tasks. First, we show how to use model-checking techniques over finite (and small) instances of the parameterized system in order to derive candidates for invariant assertions. Next, we show that the premises of the standard deductive INV rule for proving invariance properties can be automatically resolved by finite-state BDD-based methods with no need for interactive theorem proving. Combining the automatic computation of invariants with the automatic resolution of the VCs (verification conditions) yields a (necessarily) incomplete but fully automatic sound method for verifying large classes of parameterized systems. The generated invariants can be transferred to the VC-validation phase without ever been examined by the user, which explains why we refer to them as ``invisible''. The paper extends a previous presentation of this method in TACAS'01 by allowing inequality comparisons between variables and parameterized arrays whose values range over parameterized domains. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by automatic verification of diverse parameterized systems.

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